in 1953 who developed the model that is shown below

“The Birth of a Model: The Developer behind the 1953 Educational Breakthrough”

Who developed the model?

Robert M. Gagné

Robert Mills Gagné was an American educational psychologist who developed a model of instructional design in 1953. He was born on August 21, 1916, in North Andover, Massachusetts, and passed away on April 28, 2002. Gagné contributed to the fields of education and psychology throughout his career, but his work on the model continues to impact the instructional design practices of educators worldwide.

Gagné received his Bachelor’s degree from Yale University, his Master’s degree in psychology from Brown University, and his Ph.D. in psychology from the University of North Carolina. He also studied under B.F. Skinner, one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century. Over the course of his long career, Gagné taught at various universities and was a visiting professor at the University of Cambridge in England.

As an educational psychologist, Gagné was interested in how people learn. He believed that learning was a complex process that involved a series of events called “learning events.” He believed that learning could be enhanced by the careful design of instructional materials that were tailored to the individual’s needs. His model of instructional design was based on nine events of instruction that he believed were necessary for effective learning. They are:

  • Gain attention
  • Inform learners of the objective
  • Stimulate recall of prior learning
  • Prompt the use of new learning
  • Provide feedback
  • Assess performance
  • Enhance retention and retrieval
  • Transfer to real-world situations
  • Reinforce learning

Gagné’s model of instructional design remains popular today because it provides a framework for designing effective instruction. It emphasizes the importance of creating instructional materials that are engaging, relevant, and tailored to the individual’s needs. It is a useful tool for instructional designers, educators, and trainers who want to create effective learning experiences that help individuals achieve their goals.

In conclusion, Robert M. Gagné was a renowned educational psychologist who developed a model of instructional design that has influenced the field since 1953. His model is still used by educators to enhance the learning experience of their students. Gagné’s work has had a lasting impact on the field of education and psychology, and his contributions will continue to be valued by educators around the world.

Overview of Gagné’s Model

Gagné's Model

Gagné’s Model is a framework for understanding how people learn. It proposes a set of conditions that must be met in order for learning to occur. According to this model, there are nine stages of learning, and each stage builds upon the previous one. These stages are:

  1. Gain attention
  2. Inform learners of the objective
  3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
  4. Presentation of the stimulus
  5. Provide guidance
  6. Elicit performance
  7. Provide feedback
  8. Assess performance
  9. Enhance retention and transfer to other contexts

Let’s take a closer look at each of these stages to see how they contribute to the learning process.

Breakdown of Gagné’s Model

Gagné's Model Stages

The first stage is to gain attention. This involves grabbing the learner’s attention and making them interested in the material. This can be done in a variety of ways, such as using humor, telling a story, or posing a problem that the learner must solve.

The second stage is to inform learners of the objective. This stage is important because it sets the stage for the rest of the learning process. The learner needs to know what they are supposed to learn and why it is important.

Stage three is to stimulate recall of prior learning. This builds on what the learner already knows and helps to reinforce the new material. It can also help to identify any misunderstandings or gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed.

Stage four is the presentation of the stimulus. This is where the new material is presented to the learner. This stage can involve a lecture, reading material, or a demonstration.

Stage five is to provide guidance. This involves providing the learner with the tools and resources they need to learn the material. This can include handouts, study guides, or online resources.

Stage six is to elicit performance. This is where the learner is asked to apply what they have learned in a real-world context. This could involve completing a task, solving a problem, or answering questions about the material.

Stage seven is to provide feedback. This gives the learner information about how well they have done and what they need to improve. This feedback can be in the form of grades, comments, or a rubric.

Stage eight is to assess performance. This involves evaluating the learner’s performance to see how well they have learned the material. This can be done through quizzes, exams, or project assessments.

Stage nine is to enhance retention and transfer to other contexts. This is where the learner is encouraged to apply what they have learned to other contexts or situations. This can help to deepen their understanding of the material and make it easier to recall in the future.

By following these nine stages of learning, Gagné’s Model provides a roadmap for educators and trainers to create effective learning experiences. By ensuring that each stage is properly addressed, learners can acquire new knowledge and skills more effectively.

Recalling Prior Learning:

Recalling Prior Learning

Recalling prior learning is the third stage of Gagné’s Nine Stages of Learning. This stage focuses on creating linkages between new learning material and previously learned material. The aim is to allow learners to identify how the new material relates to what they already know, thus creating a better understanding of the new material. This summary of the previous learning can either be performed by the learner or by the teacher, depending on the course material’s complexity and prior knowledge required.

The learner’s previous knowledge may support the current topic’s comprehension, establish a solid foundation for learning, and eradicate potential confusions or misunderstandings. It is a belief that recalling prior learning keeps learning active and exciting. Additionally, it reinforces that ongoing learning is a gradual process of discovery that interconnects concepts and techniques.

The teacher must begin by inquiring about learners’ relevant previous experiences to identify the knowledge that they may possess regarding the topic and support the recalling process. Based on this knowledge, teachers can create an advanced organizer, which displays the relationship between new and previous knowledge.

An advanced organizer may be a diagram, mind map, graph, or any other tool that visually depicts the material. The advanced organizer should contain a summary of what the learners are going to learn in the present session. This serves as a guide, setting expectations and preparing the path for the learners.

To extract the best results from the recalling prior learning stage, the teacher should introduce the topic in a familiar context. A practical approach includes providing a hypothetical problem that relates to the previous knowledge but requires a new element for resolution or presents a real-life example. This technique assists in combining the past knowledge with new concepts thus creating a noticeable impact on the learning process.

In conclusion, Recalling Prior Learning is an essential stage in the Gagné’s Nine Stages of Learning Model. The stage intends to create a connection between the previous learning and the current topic, leading to reinforced understanding and active participation. To achieve the best outcomes, the teacher should employ various techniques, including asking questions to identify learners’ previous experiences, providing an advanced organizer to visually summarize the previous knowledge, and relating new material to familiar contexts, thus making learning fun and engaging.

The History of Gagné’s Model

Gagné's Model

Robert Gagné was a psychologist and educator who developed his instructional design theory in 1953. His model was to help educators provide effective learning experiences through an organized and structured approach. Gagné’s Model has been widely adopted and used in various educational settings since its inception.

The Nine Events of Instruction

Gagné's Nine Events

Gagné’s Model identifies nine important events that must take place during the learning process. According to Gagné, learning is a process that occurs in specifically targeted stages. Initial stimulus prompts learners to gain attention and focus on the upcoming knowledge or skill, allowing them to understand and receive content that is structured and sequenced properly. The nine events are:

  1. Gain attention
  2. Inform learner of objectives
  3. Stimulate recall of prior learning
  4. Present content
  5. Provide learning guidance
  6. Elicit performance
  7. Provide feedback
  8. Assessment
  9. Enhance retention and transfer

Advantages of Gagné’s Model

Gagné's Model Pros and Cons

The instructional design theory of Gagné’s Model provides several benefits to both students and educators. The structured approach of the model helps students learn in an organized and optimized manner. The nine events of instruction are comprehensive, ensuring that all critical components of the learning process are addressed. Teachers can streamline their lessons and instruction design to optimize learning outcomes.

The model is universal in application and is versatile to suit any teaching situation, which makes it applicable to all contexts of education. It can be adapted to any discipline or subject, and customizations can meet individual students’ needs depending on their learning styles and abilities.

How Gagné’s Model is Used Today

Gagné's Model Usage

Gagné’s Model has been used in various educational settings to help teachers structure their lessons and instructional designs. The model is particularly effective in online distance education, modular teaching, and blended learning environments – where teachers and students are not physically present in a classroom setup.

The model is also used in corporate and military training. The organizational structure and planning outlined in Gagné’s Model can help companies develop training programs suited for their specific business processes and needs. Trainers can ensure that employees learn relevant information, thoroughly and cohesively, with an emphasis on practical application in real-life situations. Military trainers likewise implement Gagné’s Model to achieve specific learning outcomes and promote information retention among soldiers.

Overall, Gagné’s Model remains a valuable tool for instructional designers and educators alike. The model provides a systematic approach to instruction, which is essential in modern times given the various challenges that the current learning environment presents. Adopting Gagné’s Model helps achieve higher learning outcomes and better prepares students for academic and professional life.

Criticism and Limitations of Gagné’s Model

limitations of Gagné's model

Gagné’s model is a valuable tool for designing effective instruction, but it is not without its fair share of criticisms and limitations. Critics argue that the model is too simplistic and linear, and it does not consider the unique needs and individual differences of each learner.

One of the main criticisms of Gagné’s model is that it is too structured and sequential. In reality, learning is often a messy and complex process, and the model may not account for all the nuances of how people actually learn. Some experts argue that the model puts too much emphasis on the idea of “stimulus-response” and doesn’t take into account the cognitive, emotional, and social factors that can play a role in learning.

Another limitation of Gagné’s model is that it assumes that all learners have the same needs and abilities. In reality, learners are diverse and can benefit from a more personalized approach to instruction. For example, some learners may have different learning styles or preferences, and the model might not be able to accommodate these differences adequately.

Some critics also argue that Gagné’s model is too focused on “instruction,” and in doing so, it overlooks the important role of feedback and assessment in the learning process. While the model does include a feedback component, it may not be sufficient in providing learners with the information they need to improve their skills and knowledge effectively.

Lastly, some experts argue that Gagné’s model is too rigid and doesn’t allow for much flexibility or creativity in the instructional design process. While the model provides a useful framework for organizing and structuring instruction, it may not leave much room for experimentation or innovation.

In sum, while Gagné’s model provides a useful starting point for instructional design, it’s essential to recognize its limitations and take a more nuanced approach to designing effective instruction.

Related posts

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *