how does cytokinesis differ in plant and animal cells quizlet

Title: Differences in Cytokinesis between Plant and Animal Cells: A Quizlet Review

Answer: This article explores the differences between cytokinesis in plant and animal cells, using a Quizlet review format to test and reinforce understanding. By examining the processes involved in cell division and comparing the unique structures and mechanisms of each cell type, readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of the variations in cytokinesis between plant and animal cells.

Introduction


Plant and Animal Cells

Cytokinesis is a crucial process in cell division that follows mitosis. It marks the end of cell division and the beginning of two separate daughter cells. Although cytokinesis occurs in both plant and animal cells, it differs significantly between the two types of cells. This article will provide an in-depth look at the differences between cytokinesis in plant and animal cells.

Cytokinesis in Animal Cells


Cytokinesis in Animal Cells

In animal cells, cytokinesis begins with the formation of a contractile ring composed of actin and myosin filaments. The contractile ring contracts, pulling the plasma membrane inwards towards the center of the cell. This inward movement creates a cleavage furrow, which eventually deepens until the cell is divided into two. Once the cleavage furrow reaches a certain depth, it fuses with the membrane on the opposite side of the cell, effectively separating the two daughter cells. Finally, the two daughter cells are fully separated, and each cell contains a nucleus and other organelles required for normal cellular function.

Cytokinesis in Plant Cells


Cytokinesis in Plant Cells

Unlike animal cells, plant cells have a cell wall that needs to be taken into account during cytokinesis. The plant cell cytokinesis begins with the formation of a cell plate in the center of the parent cell, which will eventually form the cell walls that separate the two daughter cells. The cell plate initially consists of Golgi vesicles carrying pectin and other cell wall materials. These vesicles fuse together to create a new cell wall that divides the parent cell into two daughter cells. Once the new cell wall is complete, the two daughter cells have their own plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and organelles.

Differences between Cytokinesis in Plant and Animal Cells


Differences between Cytokinesis in Plant and Animal Cells

The main difference between cytokinesis in plant and animal cells is the presence of a cell wall in plant cells. The cell plate formation in plant cells is not observed in animal cells. Additionally, the contractile ring in animal cells is not present in plant cells. Instead, plant cells use an entirely different mechanism to separate the daughter cells during cytokinesis. This difference is attributed to the structural differences between plant and animal cells and their unique cellular requirements.

Conclusion


Cell Division

In conclusion, cytokinesis is an essential process in cell division that allows one parent cell to create two genetically identical daughter cells. While cytokinesis occurs in both plant and animal cells, there are significant differences between the two processes. Plant cells use a cell plate formation mechanism to separate the daughter cells, while animal cells use a contractile ring to create a cleavage furrow. Understanding these differences can help in learning about the cellular mechanisms of these organisms and their unique cellular requirements.

What is cytokinesis?


cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is an essential process in cell division, where a single cell divides into two daughter cells. It is a crucial process in the growth and development of organisms, as it ensures the proper distribution of genetic information and cellular organelles into the daughter cells.

How does cytokinesis differ in plant and animal cells?


plant and animal cell cytokinesis

While cytokinesis serves the same purpose in both plant and animal cells, the mechanism by which it occurs is different. In animal cells, a contractile ring made up of actin and myosin filaments forms around the center of the cell, squeezing the cell’s cytoplasm and creating a cleavage furrow. This furrow deepens until the cell is pinched in two.

On the other hand, plant cells cannot form a contractile ring as they have a rigid cell wall surrounding their membrane. Instead, they form a cell plate, which is a structure made up of vesicles filled with cell wall material that fuse together in the center of the cell. Gradually, the cell plate grows outward to the edges of the cell, dividing the cell into two daughter cells. Once the cell plate reaches the edges, it fuses with the cell wall, completing the division process.

Another difference is the placement of the cell division plane. In animal cells, the plane is determined by the location of the spindle fibers, while in plant cells, it is determined by the positioning of the cell plate. In addition, the timing of cytokinesis is different: animal cells undergo cytokinesis during telophase, while plant cells initiate cytokinesis during late anaphase and complete it during telophase.

In conclusion, the process of cytokinesis differs in plant and animal cells due to their structural differences. While animal cells make use of a contractile ring, plant cells form a cell plate to divide into two daughter cells. These differences in cytokinesis demonstrate the incredible diversity and adaptability of living organisms.

Cytokinesis in Animal Cells


Animal Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is the final stage of cellular division that occurs in all eukaryotic organisms. In animals, cytokinesis involves a series of events that culminate in the separation of the two daughter cells. This process occurs differently in animal and plant cells due to the differences in their cellular architecture and composition. In animal cells, cytokinesis is characterized by the formation of a cleavage furrow that ultimately leads to the separation of the two daughter cells.

During cytokinesis in animal cells, the cytoplasm and organelles are distributed equally between the two daughter cells, ensuring that the cells have a similar size and shape. The cleavage furrow marks the location where the cell division process will take place. The furrow begins to form at the midpoint of the cell and gradually deepens until it divides the cell in two.

As the furrow begins to deepen, a group of motor proteins called myosin filaments begin to assemble at the site of the cytokinesis and contract, pulling the furrow inward towards the center of the cell. These contractions form a ring around the cell that gradually constricts, leading to a separation of the two daughter cells.

Finally, the two daughter cells are completely separated, and a new cell membrane begins to form around each of them. At this point, a new cell wall is not required since animal cells do not possess a cell wall; instead, they rely on the strength of the cell membrane to maintain their shape and integrity.

In conclusion, animal cells undergo cytokinesis through the formation of a cleavage furrow that eventually partitions the cell into two daughter cells. This process ensures that the cytoplasmic components and organelles are distributed equally between the two cells, leading to the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells.

Cytokinesis in Plant Cells


Plant Cell Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis, the final stage of cell division, in plant cells involves the formation of a new cell wall called the cell plate, which eventually divides the cytoplasm into two separate compartments. This process is different from cytokinesis in animal cells because plant cells have a cell wall.

Initially, cytokinesis in plant cells begins with a series of events that occur during telophase, the last stage of mitosis. During telophase, the nuclear envelope reforms around the two sets of chromatids, and the chromatin fibers unwind and decondense. Simultaneously, the spindle fibers start to disassemble, and a cleavage furrow forms, which eventually divides the cell’s cytoplasm in animal cells. However, in plant cells, a cell plate forms instead of a cleavage furrow.

The cell plate forms in the middle of the cell from the Golgi apparatus, which produces vesicles containing cell wall material. These vesicles fuse to form a new, rigid structure called the cell plate, which eventually divides the cytoplasm into two distinct compartments. As the cell plate grows towards the existing cell wall, it fuses with it and extends outwards until it reaches the cell membrane, dividing the cell in two.

The process of cytokinesis in plant cells is a crucial stage in the cell division process, allowing cells to reproduce and grow in significant numbers. This process can occur multiple times, leading to the formation of tissues and ultimately the growth of new organs or even entire plants.

Differences in Cytokinesis


cytokinesis plant vs animal cell diagram

Cytokinesis, the final stage of cell division wherein the cytoplasm segregates and divides into two or more daughter cells, can vary among different organisms. While animal cells undergo cytokinesis by constricting the cell membrane in an inward motion, plant cells have a more complex process because they have a distinct cell structure that separates them from animal cells – the cell wall.

Plant cells are surrounded by a rigid, protective barrier that gives them their characteristic box-like structure and enables them to withstand high turgor pressure. However, this feature makes it impossible for them to undergo cytokinesis using the same mechanism as animal cells, which do not have cell walls. Instead, plant cells use a process called phragmoplast-mediated cytokinesis, which involves the formation of a cell plate in the center of the cell.

plant cell cytokinesis diagram

When the chromosomes have finished segregating during anaphase, the spindle network of fibers then guide the movement of vesicles carrying cell wall material toward the center of the cell. These vesicles then fuse with one another and fuse with the existing cell wall, creating a new cell plate. With the help of the phragmoplast, which is a network of overlapping microtubules and actin filaments, the cell plate grows outward and eventually forms a continuous cell wall, which divides the cytoplasm into two separate cells.

On the other hand, animal cells use a contractile ring consisting of actin and myosin filaments that constrict like a belt along the cell’s circumference, which creates a deepening crease called the cleavage furrow. The inward movement of the ring constricts the furrow tightly until the cell is divided into two daughter cells. Because animal cells do not have a cell wall, it is easier for them to undergo cytokinesis through this process.

animal cell cytokinesis diagram

In summary, the key difference between cytokinesis in plant and animal cells is the presence or absence of a cell wall. While animal cells use a cleavage furrow to separate during cytokinesis, plant cells take advantage of their unique structure and use a cell plate instead. This process requires a series of complex steps, including the guidance of vesicles and development of a phragmoplast, which result in the formation of a new cell wall that segregates the cytoplasm and divides the plant cell into two or more daughter cells.

Difference in Cytokinesis between Plant and Animal Cells


Plant Cell vs Animal Cell

Cytokinesis is the final phase of cell division that involves the division of the cytoplasm and organelles to form two daughter cells. This process occurs differently in plant and animal cells due to the differences in their cellular structures.

Cytokinesis in Animal Cells

Animal Cell

In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs through a process known as constriction. During this process, a ring of actin and myosin filaments form around the center of the cell. These filaments then contract, causing the cell membrane to pinch inwards until it eventually separates the two daughter cells. This process creates a cleavage furrow that divides the cell in two.

Cytokinesis in Plant Cells

Plant Cell

Plant cells undergo a different process of cytokinesis due to the presence of a cell wall. During cytokinesis, a structure known as the cell plate forms at the center of the cell. This cell plate is made up of vesicles that contain cell wall materials, such as cellulose. Once the cell plate has fully formed and fused with the existing cell wall, two daughter cells are formed, each with their own cell wall.

Differences in Resulting Cells

Plant Cell vs Animal Cell

The differences in cytokinesis result in different characteristics for the daughter cells produced by each process. In animal cells, the cleavage furrow is responsible for the formation of two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell in size. However, in plant cells, the cell plate formation results in two daughter cells that are smaller than the parent cell but have their own cell walls.

Significance of Cytokinesis Differences

Plant Cell vs Animal Cell

The differences in cytokinesis between plant and animal cells are of significant importance due to the variations in their cellular structures and functions. The presence of a rigid cell wall in plant cells allows them to maintain their shape and withstand changes in external conditions, while the lack of a cell wall in animal cells allows them to change shape and migrate to different locations in the body.

Conclusion

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Understanding the differences in cytokinesis between plant and animal cells can help students gain a deeper understanding of cell division and the unique characteristics of these two important cellular structures. Though both processes result in the formation of two daughter cells, the processes of constriction in animal cells and cell plate formation in plant cells result in variations in the size, shape, and structure of the resulting daughter cells.

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